Welcome to the Focus Module

"Epidemiology: the importance of study types and confounding"

Created as a part of the EU funded LifeCycle Project


Epidemiology is the study of the distribution, patterns and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations. Choosing the appropriate study design is essential to successfully answering your research question. In observational studies, where the exposure is not assigned randomly by a researcher, bias due to confounding is the main threat to a valid estimate of an effect. In this module, several descriptive, associational and experimental epidemiological study designs are described in detail. The concept of confounding and, in specific, of time-varying confounding, and examples in life course epidemiology are also presented.

Course content



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Free of charge! 


Available Worldwide


Targeted to international healthcare professionals and researchers

CME Certificate of Completion

open access

Complete all unit elements 


Pass CME Test

Credits by the EACCME  

(Validity 18/10/2021 - 17/10/2023)